A compendium of gene expression in normal human tissues

Li Li Hsiao, Fernando Dangond, Takumi Yoshida, Robert Hong, Roderick V. Jensen, Jatin Misra, William Dillon, Kailin F. Lee, Kathryn E. Clark, Peter Haverty, Zhiping Weng, George L. Mutter, Matthew P. Frosch, Marcy E. MacDonald, Edgar L. Milford, Christopher P. Crum, Raphael Bueno, Richard E. Pratt, Mamatha Mahadevappa, Janet A. WarringtonGregory Stephanopoulos, George Stephanopoulos, Steven R. Gullans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

347 Scopus citations


This study creates a compendium of gene expression in normal human tissues suitable as a reference for defining basic organ systems biology. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyze 59 samples representing 19 distinct tissue types. Of ∼7,000 genes analyzed, 451 genes are expressed in all tissue types and designated as housekeeping genes. These genes display significant variation in expression levels among tissues and are sufficient for discerning tissue-specific expression signatures, indicative of fundamental differences in biochemical 'processes. In addition, subsets of tissue-selective genes are identified that define key biological processes characterizing each organ. This compendium high-lights similarities and differences among organ systems and different individuals and also provides a publicly available resource (Human Gene Expression Index, the HuGE Index, http://www.hugeindex.org) for future studies of pathophysiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalPhysiological genomics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioinformatics
  • Gene expression
  • Human tissues
  • Microarrays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Genetics


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