A Glucose-Insulin Mixture Model and Application to Short-Term Hypoglycemia Prediction in the Night Time

Weijie Wang, Shaoping Wang, Xingjian Wang, Di Liu, Yixuan Geng, Teresa Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is recognized as a critical problem for diabetic patients, especially at night. To give glucose prediction and advance warning of hypoglycemia of at least 30 minutes, various glucose-insulin models have been proposed. Recognizing the complementary nature of the models, this research proposes a Glucose-Insulin Mixture (GIM) model to predict the glucose values for hypoglycemia detection, by optimally fusing different models with its adjusted parameters to address the inter-and intra-individual variability. Methods: Two types of classic glucose-insulin models, the Ruan model, with single-compartment glucose kinetics, and the Hovorka model, with two-compartment glucose kinetics, are selected as two candidate models. Based on Bayesian inference, GIM is introduced with quantified contributions from the models with the associated parameters. GIM is then applied to predict the glucose values and hypoglycemia events. Results: The proposed model is validated by the nocturnal glucose data collected from 12 participants with type 1 diabetes. The GIM model has promising fitting of RMSE within 0.3465 mmol/L and predicting of RMSE within 0.5571 mmol/L. According to the literature, the hypoglycemia is defined as 3.9 mmol/L, and the GIM model shows good short-Term hypoglycemia prediction performance with the data collected within the last hour (accuracy: 95.97%, precision: 91.77%, recall: 95.60%). In addition, the probability of hypoglycemia event in 30 minutes is inferred. Conclusion: GIM, by fusing various glucose-insulin models via Bayesian inference, has the promise to capture glucose dynamics and predict hypoglycemia. Significance: GIM based short-Term hypoglycemia prediction has potential clinical utility for timely intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9163275
Pages (from-to)834-845
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Bayesian inference
  • glucose-insulin model
  • model uncertainty
  • parameter uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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