An Adaptive Force Guidance System for Computer-Guided Laparoscopy Training

Minsik Hong, Jerzy W. Rozenblit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We present an adaptive force guidance system for laparoscopic surgery skills training. This system consists of self-adjusting fuzzy sliding-mode controllers and switching mode controllers to provide proper force feedback. Using virtual fixtures, the proposed system restricts motions or guides a trainee to navigate a surgical instrument in a 3-D space in a manner that mimics a human instructor who would teach the trainees by holding their hands. The self-adjusting controllers incorporate human factors, such as different force sensitivity and proficiency levels. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated using the computer-assisted surgical trainer (CAST). The effects of the force guidance system are presented based on the experimental test results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8019-8031
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022


  • Adaptive systems
  • assistive technology
  • force feedback
  • fuzzy control
  • sliding-mode control
  • surgical training
  • virtual fixtures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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