Astrometric Accelerations as Dynamical Beacons: Discovery and Characterization of HIP 21152 B, the First T-dwarf Companion in the Hyades* * Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Kyle Franson, Brendan P. Bowler, Mariangela Bonavita, Timothy D. Brandt, Minghan Chen, Matthias Samland, Zhoujian Zhang, Anna Lueber, Kevin Heng, Daniel Kitzmann, Trevor Wolf, Brandon A. Jones, Quang H. Tran, Daniella C. Bardalez Gagliuffi, Beth Biller, Jeffrey Chilcote, Justin R. Crepp, Trent J. Dupuy, Jacqueline Faherty, Clémence FontaniveTyler D. Groff, Raffaele Gratton, Olivier Guyon, Rebecca Jensen-Clem, Nemanja Jovanovic, N. Jeremy Kasdin, Julien Lozi, Eugene A. Magnier, Koraljka Mužić, Aniket Sanghi, Christopher A. Theissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Benchmark brown dwarf companions with well-determined ages and model-independent masses are powerful tools to test substellar evolutionary models and probe the formation of giant planets and brown dwarfs. Here, we report the independent discovery of HIP 21152 B, the first imaged brown dwarf companion in the Hyades, and conduct a comprehensive orbital and atmospheric characterization of the system. HIP 21152 was targeted in an ongoing high-contrast imaging campaign of stars exhibiting proper-motion changes between Hipparcos and Gaia, and was also recently identified by Bonavita et al. (2022) and Kuzuhara et al. (2022). Our Keck/NIRC2 and SCExAO/CHARIS imaging of HIP 21152 revealed a comoving companion at a separation of 0.″37 (16 au). We perform a joint orbit fit of all available relative astrometry and radial velocities together with the Hipparcos-Gaia proper motions, yielding a dynamical mass of 24 − 4 + 6 M Jup , which is 1-2σ lower than evolutionary model predictions. Hybrid grids that include the evolution of cloud properties best reproduce the dynamical mass. We also identify a comoving wide-separation (1837″ or 7.9 × 104 au) early-L dwarf with an inferred mass near the hydrogen-burning limit. Finally, we analyze the spectra and photometry of HIP 21152 B using the Saumon & Marley (2008) atmospheric models and a suite of retrievals. The best-fit grid-based models have f sed = 2, indicating the presence of clouds, T eff = 1400 K, and log g = 4.5 dex . These results are consistent with the object’s spectral type of T0 ± 1. As the first benchmark brown dwarf companion in the Hyades, HIP 21152 B joins the small but growing number of substellar companions with well-determined ages and dynamical masses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number39
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume165
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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