Knowledge graphs are graph-based data models which can represent real-time data that is constantly growing with the addition of new information. The question-answering systems over knowledge graphs (KGQA) retrieve answers to a natural language question from the knowledge graph. Most existing KGQA systems use static knowledge bases for offline training. After deployment, they fail to learn from unseen new entities added to the graph. There is a need for dynamic algorithms which can adapt to the evolving graphs and give interpretable results. In this research work, we propose using new auction algorithms for question answering over knowledge graphs. These algorithms can adapt to changing environments in real-time, making them suitable for offline and online training. An auction algorithm computes paths connecting an origin node to one or more destination nodes in a directed graph and uses node prices to guide the search for the path. The prices are initially assigned arbitrarily and updated dynamically based on defined rules. The algorithm navigates the graph from the high-price to the low-price nodes. When new nodes and edges are dynamically added or removed in an evolving knowledge graph, the algorithm can adapt by reusing the prices of existing nodes and assigning arbitrary prices to the new nodes. For subsequent related searches, the “learned” prices provide the means to “transfer knowledge” and act as a “guide”: to steer it toward the lower-priced nodes. Our approach reduces the search computational effort by 60% in our experiments, thus making the algorithm computationally efficient. The resulting path given by the algorithm can be mapped to the attributes of entities and relations in knowledge graphs to provide an explainable answer to the query. We discuss some applications for which our method can be used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number336
JournalInformation (Switzerland)
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • auction algorithms
  • knowledge graph question answering (KGQA)
  • knowledge graphs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems


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