B-AWARE: Blockage Aware RSU Scheduling for 5G Enabled Autonomous Vehicles

Matthew Szeto, Edward Andert, Aviral Shrivastava, Martin Reisslein, Chung Wei Lin, Christ Richmond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


5G Millimeter Wave (mmWave) technology holds great promise for Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) due to its ability to achieve data rates in the Gbps range. However, mmWave suffers from a high beamforming overhead and requirement of line of sight (LOS) to maintain a strong connection. For Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) scenarios, where CAVs connect to roadside units (RSUs), these drawbacks become apparent. Because vehicles are dynamic, there is a large potential for link blockages. These blockages are detrimental to the connected applications running on the vehicle, such as cooperative perception and remote driver takeover. Existing RSU selection schemes base their decisions on signal strength and vehicle trajectory alone, which is not enough to prevent the blockage of links. Many modern CAVs motion planning algorithms routinely use other vehicle's near-future path plans, either by explicit communication among vehicles, or by prediction. In this paper, we make use of the knowledge of other vehicle's near future path plans to further improve the RSU association mechanism for CAVs. We solve the RSU association algorithm by converting it to a shortest path problem with the objective to maximize the total communication bandwidth. We evaluate our approach, titled B-AWARE, in simulation using Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) and Digital twin for self-dRiving Intelligent VEhicles (DRIVE) on 12 highway and city street scenarios with varying traffic density and RSU placements. Simulations show B-AWARE results in a 1.05× improvement of the potential datarate in the average case and 1.28× in the best case vs. the state-of-the-art. But more impressively, B-AWARE reduces the time spent with no connection by 42% in the average case and 60% in the best case as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. This is a result of B-AWARE reducing nearly 100% of blockage occurrences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number154
JournalACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
Issue number5 s
StatePublished - Sep 9 2023


  • 5G
  • CAV
  • RSU
  • V2I
  • autonomous vehicles
  • mmWave
  • selection
  • user association
  • vehicular networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture


Dive into the research topics of 'B-AWARE: Blockage Aware RSU Scheduling for 5G Enabled Autonomous Vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this