Biological mechanisms underpinning the development of long COVID

Rubeshan Perumal, Letitia Shunmugam, Kogieleum Naidoo, Dave Wilkins, Alfredo Garzino-Demo, Christian Brechot, Anders Vahlne, Janko Nikolich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


As COVID-19 evolves from a pandemic to an endemic disease, the already staggering number of people that have been or will be infected with SARS-CoV-2 is only destined to increase, and the majority of humanity will be infected. It is well understood that COVID-19, like many other viral infections, leaves a significant fraction of the infected with prolonged consequences. Continued high number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, viral evolution with escape from post-infection and vaccinal immunity, and reinfections heighten the potential impact of Long COVID. Hence, the impact of COVID-19 on human health will be seen for years to come until more effective vaccines and pharmaceutical treatments become available. To that effect, it is imperative that the mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of Long COVID be elucidated. In this article, we provide an in-depth analysis of the evidence on several potential mechanisms of Long COVID and discuss their relevance to its pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106935
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 16 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Health sciences
  • Medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Biological mechanisms underpinning the development of long COVID'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this