The rapid growth of various vehicular apps such as automotive navigation and in-car entertainment has brought the explosion of vehicular data. Such a growth has given rise to a huge challenge of maintaining the quality of cloud storage services for the whole period of storage in vehicular networks. As a result, poor quality of services easily causes data corruption problems and thereby threats vehicular data integrity. Blockchain, a tamper-proofing technique, is considered a promising approach for mitigating data integrity risks in cloud storage. However, existing blockchain-based schemes for auditing long-term cloud data integrity suffer from poor communication performance in a vehicular network. In this study, a blockchain-based offline auditing scheme for cloud storage in the vehicular network is proposed to improve auditing performance. Inspired by the data structure of blockchain, we design an evidence chain to achieve offline auditing, which allows the cloud to spontaneously generate data integrity evidence without communicating with auditors during the evidence generation phase. Furthermore, we extend our scheme to support public and automatic validation based on the smart contract. We prove the security of the proposed scheme under the random oracle model and further provide the performance evaluation by comparing with the state-of-the-art approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2944-2956
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022


  • Cloud storage
  • blockchain
  • offline auditing
  • vehicular network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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