Characterization of human extreme heat exposure using an outdoor thermal manikin

Ankit Joshi, Shri H. Viswanathan, Ankush K. Jaiswal, Kambiz Sadeghi, Lyle Bartels, Rajan M. Jain, Gokul Pathikonda, Jennifer K. Vanos, Ariane Middel, Konrad Rykaczewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extreme heat is a current and growing global health concern. Current heat exposure models include meteorological and human factors that dictate heat stress, comfort, and risk of illness. However, radiation models simplify the human body to a cylinder, while convection ones provide conflicting predictions. To address these issues, we introduce a new method to characterize human exposure to extreme heat with unprecedented detail. We measure heat loads on 35 body surface zones using an outdoor thermal manikin (“ANDI”) alongside an ultrasonic anemometer array and integral radiation measurements (IRM). We show that regardless of body orientation, IRM and ANDI agree even under high solar conditions. Further, body parts can be treated as cylinders, even in highly turbulent flow. This geometry-rooted insight yields a whole-body convection correlation that resolves prior conflicts and is valid for diverse indoor and outdoor wind flows. Results will inform decision-making around heat protection, adaptation, and mitigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number171525
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - May 1 2024


  • Air turbulence
  • Convection
  • Environmental human heat exposure
  • Integral radiation measurement
  • Radiation
  • Thermal manikin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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