Characterization of PEDOT:PSS Nanofilms Printed via Electrically Assisted Direct Ink Deposition with Ultrasonic Vibrations

Yizhen Zhu, Rohan Ravishekar, Tengteng Tang, Banashree Gogoi, Carson Gockley, Sushmitha Venu, Terry L. Alford, Xiangjia Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has emerged as a promising conductive polymer for constructing efficient hole-transport layers (HTLs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, conventional fabrication methods, such as spin coating, spray coating, and slot-die coating, have resulted in PEDOT:PSS nanofilms with limited performance, characterized by a low density and non-uniform nanostructures. We introduce a novel 3D-printing approach called electrically assisted direct ink deposition with ultrasonic vibrations (EF-DID-UV) to overcome these challenges. This innovative printing method combines programmable acoustic field modulation with electrohydrodynamic spraying, providing a powerful tool for controlling the PEDOT:PSS nanofilm’s morphology precisely. The experimental findings indicate that when PEDOT:PSS nanofilms are crafted using horizontal ultrasonic vibrations, they demonstrate a uniform dispersion of PEDOT:PSS nanoparticles, setting them apart from instances involving vertical ultrasonic vibrations, both prior to and after the printing process. In particular, when horizontal ultrasonic vibrations are applied at a low amplitude (0.15 A) during printing, these nanofilms showcase exceptional wettability performance, with a contact angle of 16.24°, and impressive electrical conductivity of 2092 Ω/square. Given its ability to yield high-performance PEDOT:PSS nanofilms with precisely controlled nanostructures, this approach holds great promise for a wide range of nanotechnological applications, including the production of solar cells, wearable sensors, and actuators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7109
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • conductive nanofilm
  • electrospray
  • perovskite solar cells
  • ultrasonic vibrations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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