Detection of Off-Gassed Products From Molten Salts Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Daniel Diaz, David W. Hahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The detection of off-gassed sodium from molten sodium nitrate (NaNO3) at temperatures between 330 °C and 505 °C and off-gassed calcium from molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic (LKE) mixtures at 510 °C with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was demonstrated. NaNO3 and LKE samples were melted in a custom-built crucible that promoted the generation of off-gassed products from the molten sample. The off-gassed products were analyzed with a LIBS system designed to probe the high-temperature environment. Na D emission lines, Na(I)588.99 nm and Na(I) 589.59 nm, were detected from the NaNO3 samples after reaching a temperature threshold, which indicated the occurrence of phase change. In LKE mixtures, the detection of Ca impurities at a concentration of 78 mg/kg was possible using the emission lines Ca(II) 393.66 nm and Ca(II) 395.85 nm. This work demonstrates the real-time monitoring capabilities of LIBS in high-temperature environments that simulate the conditions of molten salt reactors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1033-1043
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Spectroscopy
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • LIBS
  • Molten salt reactor
  • calcium
  • laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
  • off-gassed products
  • sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Spectroscopy


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