Examining the Moderating Role of Behavioral Willingness on Indirect Relations Between Alcohol Expectancies and Negative Consequences

Scott E. King, Jack T. Waddell, William R. Corbin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Aims: Alcohol expectancies are directly linked to alcohol misuse and indirectly linked to negative consequences via use. Likewise, willingness to experience negative consequences imparts direct risk for negative consequences and may represent an important individual difference when predicting risky alcohol use. To date, no studies have examined how willingness to experience consequences may moderate relations between expectancies and alcohol use in the prediction of negative consequences. It is possible that those who expect appetitive effects and are high in willingness may discount the severity of negative consequences and drink more to realize positive expectations. Alternatively, those who expect aversive alcohol-related effects and are high in willingness may drink more to overcome negative experiences. Methods: The current study tested these hypotheses in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 657) from a larger study focused on alcohol and cannabis co-use. Results: Findings suggested that high-arousal positive expectancies (e.g. sociable, lively, talkative) function as a risk factor for negative consequences indirectly through heavier drinking, whereas low-arousal positive (e.g. mellow, relaxed) expectancies served as an indirect protective factor against negative consequences through lighter drinking. Willingness to experience negative consequences had direct and indirect effects on negative consequences through drinking but did not interact with alcohol expectancies. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the utility of assessing the full range of alcohol expectancies and behavioral willingness in continued research into the dynamic nature of antecedents to alcohol misuse and negative consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)755-761
Number of pages7
JournalAlcohol and Alcoholism
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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