Extreme heat at outdoor COVID-19 vaccination sites

Ladd Keith, Nicole Iroz-Elardo, Erika Austof, Ida Sami, Mona Arora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Extreme heat is an increasing climate risk due to climate change and the urban heat island (UHI) effect and can jeopardize points of dispensing (PODs) for COVID-19 vaccination distribution and broader public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) response operations. These PODs were often located on large parking lot sites with high heat severity and did not take heat mitigation or management strategies into account for unacclimated workers and volunteers. To investigate the personal heat exposure of workers, volunteers, and clients at three PODs in Tucson, Arizona, we collected ambient air temperatures, wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT), surface temperatures, and thermal images. We also made qualitative observations and compared data against daily meteorological records. Ambient air temperatures at all three PODs exceeded the meteorological recorded high. WBGT on average were 8°F (4.4 °C) higher in full sun locations than shaded locations such as tents. Evaporative cooling decreased ambient air temperatures by 2°F (1.2 °C) when placed one per tent, but decreased ambient air temperatures by 7°F (3.9 °C) when placed en masse in a larger tent. Vehicle surface temperatures exceeded recommended safe limits of 140°F (60 °C) at all three sites, with a maximum temperature recorded at 170.9°F (77.2 °C). Public health professionals should consider heat resilience, including heat mitigation and management measures, in POD and PHEP response operations to reduce exposure. This includes considering the UHI effect in the siting of PODs, applying heat mitigation strategies in the design of PODs such as the adaptive use of solar panels for shading, and improving heat safety guidance for workers and volunteers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100043
JournalJournal of Climate Change and Health
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Climate change
  • Extreme heat
  • Heat resilience
  • Points of dispensing
  • Public health emergency preparedness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Global and Planetary Change


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