Genetic and Other Determinants for the Severity of Coccidioidomycosis: A Clinician’s Perspective

John N. Galgiani, Amy P. Hsu, Daniel A. Powell, Jatin M. Vyas, Steven M. Holland

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The endemic fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis, occurs after inhalation of one or very few Coccidioides spp. spores. Infections produce diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from insignificant to extremely destructive, even fatal. Approaches to understanding this range of consequences have traditionally categorized patients into a small number of groups (asymptomatic, uncomplicated self-limited, fibro-cavitary, and extra-thoracic disseminated) and then looked for immunologic differences among them. Recently, variants within genes of innate pathways have been found to account, in part, for infections that result in disseminated disease. This discovery raises the very attractive theory that, in patients without severe immunosuppression, much of the disease spectrum can be accounted for by various combinations of such deleterious variants in innate pathways. In this review, we summarize what is known about genetic determinants that are responsible for the severity of coccidioidal infections and how complex innate genetic differences among different people might account for the spectrum of disease observed clinically.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number554
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • coccidioidomycosis
  • fungal infections
  • genetic variants
  • human disease
  • immunity
  • mice
  • pathogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science
  • Microbiology (medical)


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