Low temperature dopant activation using variable frequency microwave annealing

Terry Alford, K. Sivaramakrishnan, A. Indium, Iftikhar Ahmad, R. Hubbard, N. D. Theodore

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Variable frequency microwaves (VFM) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were used to activate ion implanted dopants and re-grow implant-damaged silicon. Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the extent of dopant activation and revealed comparable resistivities for 30 seconds of RTA annealing at 900 °C and 6-9 minutes of VFM annealing at 540 °C. Ion channeling analysis spectra revealed that microwave heating removes the Si damage that results from arsenic ion implantation to an extent comparable to RTA. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the silicon lattice regains nearly all of its crystallinity after microwave processing of arsenic implanted silicon. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveals limited diffusion of dopants in VFM processed samples when compared to rapid thermal annealing. Our results establish that VFM is an effective means of low-temperature dopant activation in ion-implanted Si.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmorphous and Polycrystalline Thin-Film Silicon Science and Technology - 2010
Number of pages6
StatePublished - Dec 24 2010
Event2010 MRS Spring Meeting - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Apr 5 2010Apr 9 2010

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings


Other2010 MRS Spring Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Low temperature dopant activation using variable frequency microwave annealing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this