Multiagent Intratumoral Immunotherapy Can Be Effective in A20 Lymphoma Clearance and Generation of Systemic T Cell Immunity

Kristy E. Gilman, Andrew P. Matiatos, Megan J. Cracchiolo, Amanda G. Moon, Dan W. Davini, Richard J. Simpson, Emmanuel Katsanis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The use of immunotherapies has shown promise against selective human cancers. Identifying novel combinations of innate and adaptive immune cell-activating agents that can work synergistically to suppress tumor growth and provide additional protection against resistance or recurrence is critical. The A20 murine lymphoma model was used to evaluate the effect of various combination immunotherapies administered intratumorally. We show that single-modality treatment with Poly(I:C) or GM-CSF-secreting allogeneic cells only modestly controls tumor growth, whereas when given together there is an improved benefit, with 50% of animals clearing tumors and surviving long-term. Neither heat nor irradiation of GM-CSF-secreting cells enhanced the response over use of live cells. The use of a TIM-3 inhibitory antibody and an OX40 agonist in combination with Poly(I:C) allowed for improved tumor control, with 90% of animals clearing tumors with or without a combination of GM-CSF-secreting cells. Across all treatment groups, mice rejecting their primary A20 tumors were immune to subsequent challenge with A20, and this longstanding immunity was T-cell dependent. The results herein support the use of combinations of innate and adaptive immune activating agents for immunotherapy against lymphoma and should be investigated in other cancer types.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1951
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • GM-CSF
  • cancer
  • checkpoint inhibitors
  • combination therapy
  • immunotherapy
  • intratumoral

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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