Peridynamics with strain gradient for modeling carbon nanotube under static and dynamic loading

Cody Mitts, Elias C. Aifantis, Erdogan Madenci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This study couples peridynamic (PD) theory with strain gradient elasticity (SGE) theory to investigate the combined effect of PD and SGE length scale parameters on size effect. The SGE theory introduces a length scale parameter in the stress–strain relations to account for size effect. The solution to the classical form of SGE equation of motion requires two additional non-classical boundary conditions arising from the presence of fourth-order spatial derivatives. The wave dispersions level off as the wave number increases as observed in real materials. The PD theory allows for nonlocal interactions of a material point within its horizon which serves as the PD length scale parameter. The equation of motion emerges in the form of an integral equation and the internal forces are expressed through nonlocal interactions (bonds) between the material points within a continuous body. It is a reformulation of classical continuum mechanics which is free of spatial derivatives. The numerical results concern a previously considered carbon nanotube (CNT). Under quasi-static axial loading, the results indicate an increased strengthening effect along the length of the tube. Under dynamic loading, its longitudinal vibration response is captured through explicit time integration. The numerical predictions capture the reference solutions corresponding to the classical SGE equation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-154
Number of pages8
JournalMechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • Peridynamics
  • carbon nanotube
  • nonlocal
  • size effect
  • strain gradient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • General Mathematics
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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