Alterations in hepatic transporters have been identified in precirrhotic chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that result in pharmacokinetic variations causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, the effect of CLD on the expression of renal transporters is unknown despite the overwhelming evidence of kidney injury in CLD patients. This study determines the transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles of renal drug transporters in patients with defined CLD etiology. Renal biopsies were obtained from patients with a history of CLD etiologies, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), viral hepatitis C (HCV), and combination ALD/HCV. A significant decrease in organic anion transporter (OAT)-3 was identified in NASH, ALD, HCV, and ALD/HCV (1.56 ± 1.10; 1.01 ± 0.46; 1.03 ± 0.43; 0.86 ± 0.57 pmol/ mg protein) relative to control (2.77 ± 1.39 pmol/mg protein). Additionally, a decrease was shown for OAT4 in NASH (24.9 ± 5.69 pmol/mg protein) relative to control (43.8 ± 19.9 pmol/mg protein) and in urate transporter 1 (URAT1) for ALD and HCV (1.56 ± 0.15 and 1.65 ± 0.69 pmol/mg protein) relative to control (4.69 ± 4.59 pmol/mg protein). These decreases in organic anion transporter expression could result in increased and prolonged systemic exposure to drugs and possible toxicity. Renal transporter changes, in addition to hepatic transporter alterations, should be considered in dose adjustments for CLD patients for a more accurate disposition profile. It is important to consider a multiorgan approach to altered pharmacokinetics of drugs prescribed to CLD patients to prevent ADRs and improve patient outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science