The Present and Future Status of Ecosystem Services for Coral Reefs

Katie L. Cramer, Miranda L. Bernard, Isabella Bernat, Luis Gutierrez, Erin L. Murphy, Paola Sangolquí, Katie C. Surrey, Leah R. Gerber

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


Coral reef ecosystems are among the most imperiled globally from human impacts. They are also the most biodiverse marine ecosystems and play a vital role in the food and livelihood security of tens of millions of people. Although the ecological and socioeconomic importance of coral reefs has been relatively well-documented, the impacts of coral reef degradation on ecosystem service provisioning are less known. Here, we review the range of ecosystem services currently provided by reefs (provisioning, regulating, and cultural), the human activities that currently threaten these services, and the future prospects of reef ecosystem services given the projected combined effects of local human disturbances and climate change. We then propose promising policy and management interventions to promote the maintenance of key coral reef ecosystem services into the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationImperiled
Subtitle of host publicationThe Encyclopedia of Conservation: Volume 1-3
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780128211397
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Climate change
  • Coastal development
  • Coastal zone management
  • Conservation
  • Fisheries
  • Invasive species
  • Markets
  • Pollution
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Environmental Science


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