Ultrafast and Large-Scale Fabrication of PEDOT:PSS Nanofilms Using Electrical-Field-Assisted Direct Ink Deposition

Banashree Gogoi, Carson Gockley, Sushmitha Venu, Yizhen Zhu, Pranith Alluri, Ayinawu Abdul Malik, Mitesh Suhas Despande, Raveena Phadnis, Evangeline Amonoo, Xiangjia Li, Terry L. Alford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The importance of conductive polymers has significantly increased over the decade due to their various applications, such as in electronic devices, sensors, and photovoltaics. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the most successfully and widely used polymers in practical applications. Spin coating is extensively used to fabricate these conductive films; however, it has disadvantages. It is inherently a batch process with relatively low output and high solution wastage. To address these issues, we developed a novel printing process called electrical-field-assisted direct ink deposition (EF-DID), which yields a continuous, homogenous film with high electrical conductivity. In this process, we studied the formation of nanodroplets under an electrical field and their effects on film characteristics. Furthermore, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was considered as an additive solvent to increase the conductivity and wettability of the films. We then compared EF-DID-printed PEDOT:PSS films with spin-coated films to better understand the film properties. Finally, inverted perovskite solar cell devices were fabricated and compared, where the PEDOT:PSS layers were prepared by EF-DID printing and spin coating. Based on the experimental results, a solution of 20% PEDOT:PSS in DMSO (vol/vol) printed by EF-DID for 15 s provided optimal morphology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5989
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • conductive nanofilm
  • direct ink deposition
  • electrical field
  • spin coating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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