Utilization of opportunistic cervical cancer screening in Nigeria

Magdiel A. Habila, Emmanuel Sagay, Mavis Obeng-Kusi, Maryam J. Ali, Francis A. Magaji, Iornum H. Shambe, Patrick H. Daru, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Purnima Madhivanan, Atiene S. Sagay, Jonah Musa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: While various interventions have been conducted to decrease cervical cancer’s burden in Nigeria, no study has examined the trends in cervical cancer screening uptake over time. The present study sought to fill this gap in knowledge using data collected at Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods: Data collected continuously between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed to identify trends in screening uptake, changes in risk factors for cervical cancer, and to identify factors for women screened at Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Jos, Nigeria. Categorical analyses and logistic regression models were used to describe patient characteristics by year, and to identify factors associated with repeated screening uptake. Results: A total of 14,088 women who were screened between 2006 and 2016 were included in the database; 2,800 women had more than one screening visit. Overall, screening uptake differed significantly by year. On average women were first screened at age 38. About 2% of women screened were women living with HIV. Most women (86%) had normal pap smear at first screening, with the greatest decreased risk of abnormalities observed between 2011 and 2014. Odds of a follow-up screening after a normal result decreased significantly between 2008 and 2016 compared to women screened in 2006 and 2007. Finally, women living with HIV had increased odds of follow-up screening after having a normal pap smear. Conclusions: These findings contribute to our understanding of the potential social and health system barriers to cervical cancer control in Nigeria. The findings may assist policy makers to design interventions to increase access and compliance to recommended screening schedules in this vulnerable population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-20
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Cervical cancer screening
  • Health-seeking behavior
  • Low-resource settings
  • Opportunistic screening
  • Pap smear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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